The Neolithic Revolution (c. 10,000 – 4, 000 BCE)

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AN AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

early agriculture

The neolithic revolution started at the end of the Ice Age, around 10,000 BCE. The cause of this huge change, was the dramatic shift, from hunting and gathering to systematic agriculture and animal husbandry. By planting grains, vegetables, and domesticating animals, the early humans were able to provide a continuous food supply, which allowed them to give up the nomadic way of life and settle in communities.

Systematic agriculture developed independently between 9,000 and 7,000 BCE in four different areas of the world. In each of these areas different plants were cultivated:

agriculture near east

In the near east there was wheat, barely, and lentils.

southern asia agriculture

In Southern Asia there was rice and millet.

west african agriculture

In West Africa there was millet and yams.

anicent american agriculture

In the Americas there was corn (maize).

NEOLITHIC FARMING VILLAGES

catal huyuk

The Neolithic village of Catal Huyuk, in present day Turkey, reveals how the growing of crops and the raising of animals gave rise to permanent settlements. The oldest known agriculture was wheat. People grew their own food and stored it in storerooms in their homes. Domesticated animals such as cattle, supplied meat, milk, and hides. Food surpluses also allowed the birth of culture. People were able to do other things aside from searching constantly for their next meal. Some people became artisans and made weapons and jewelry, which they were then able to trade with their neighbors.

catal huyuk goddess

Religious shrines and statues, like this Catal Huyuk goddess statue, have been found at Neolithic farming village sites. The voluptuous female form, with large breasts and hips, generally means the statute was a fertility goddess and a mother earth figure. These discoveries reveal the growing role of religion in the live of Neolithic people.

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